Whole grains include all three parts of a grain kernel: the bran, endosperm and germ. The bran is the outer layer of the grain kernel and includes high amounts of various nutrients, including fibre, minerals and protein. The middle layer of the grain, the endosperm, stores energy for the plant and contains carbohydrates and protein. The germ is the smallest part of the grain but it is packed with nutrients including minerals, a variety of vitamins and phytochemicals. Interestingly, some whole grains, such as buckwheat and quinoa, are actually seeds, not grains. Although they are seeds, they provide the same type of health benefits as grains.